How to create a living wall: ideas and advice for your vertical garden

Aim high with your planting to create a living wall or vertical garden, and make the most of every available space in your garden, from the ground up

Living wall in garden covered in climbing plants
(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

Living walls and vertical gardens are increasingly being used to beautify walls and offer more space for display and production. Using the vertical plane for planting offers the opportunity to make the most of walls, fences and barriers. Knowing how to create a living wall and vertical garden is especially useful in small gardens, courtyards and balconies, to use every perspective. You can simply attach pots on the wall or opt for a range of systems with pockets or automated hydroponics. 

For maximum drama, a full living wall is stunning, or in limited space you could plant your own growing art in a picture frame, create a tower of stacked pots, or use climbing plants for a cascade of colour.

Read on for tips on creating a vertical garden, and don't miss our garden ideas page for more inspiration. 

A living planted wall

Using a living wall system opens up the array of plants that you can grow vertically – from ferns to arum lilies, grasses and bulbs, moss to flowers – all in a cascade of greenery 

(Image credit: leigh Clapp)

What's the difference between living walls and vertical gardens?

Simply put, living walls are often created with modular systems fixed to a wall; they can cover a whole wall or a small section. 

Vertical gardens take a more traditional approach, using everything from pergolas to containers to use the vertical plane within the garden.

Let's take a look at living walls first.

What do you need to create a living wall?

Container gardening with succulents

Succulent panels are ideal for a sunny spot and are an easy DIY project. They are very low-maintenance plants, just mist the board from time to time

(Image credit: @ Frances Lincoln)

The range of commercially available green wall or panel systems may seem daunting, but in general they are either soil-based modules, soil-based fabric membranes or hydroponic systems that rely on water and fertiliser fed to the plants from a tank system. Keep in mind the weight of the system and strength of your garden fence or wall. 

You will need a waterproof membrane or a gap to protect the wall behind. You may opt for an irrigation system, or hand water; just make sure it is even, as the plants at the bottom tend to get a larger dousing.

a hydroponic system panel for growing plants vertically

A hydroponic system panel allows the ferns, huecheras and grasses to appear to be growing wildly up the fence, echoing the soft fringe planting of stipa and foxgloves

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

Where to plant a living wall?

You can site your living wall or vertical garden anywhere – the trick is really to choose the right plants for that part of the garden, just as you would a border. Is there a shady spot that would be transformed with lush, shade-loving foliage, or a sunny area for a herb tower? 

Vertical edible garden

A great idea for living walls, vertical edible gardens in pockets and container systems take up less space, are easy to harvest and maintain. If you can already get a harvest from container gardens, vertical gardens should be no problem

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

How to create a living wall

Your living wall may not be a whole wall you want to transform, but rather you’d like to add a decorative touch to a space or a mini edible garden by the kitchen. 

These miniature works of art can be created with fabric pockets and plastic container modular systems that you can buy or you may like to make your own frame. Your green living wall will change as it grows, can be redesigned easily by adding different plants, and is often portable.    

soil based living wall system

The silver foliage of lamium lifts the green hues from ferns in this soil-based system living wall designed by Kate Gould

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

Use long-living, disease-resistant plants that are light with shallow roots, as they will have restricted root space. For a year-round effect select mostly evergreens, then highlight with seasonal colour. 

You can grow edible treats, pretty flowers and foliage; your imagination is the only limit. Edibles need a sunny spot – herbs, strawberries, tomatoes and salad leaves all do well vertically. For sunny ornamentals try helianthemum, sedum, daisies, euphorbia and festuca. Choices for shade include ferns, bromeliads, ajuga, heucheras and tiarellas.  

terracotta pots with plants on a ladder in a garden

The options are many for creative vertical planting, Redundant shelving or an old ladder can find a new purpose in the garden

(Image credit: Future/Leigh Clapp)

How to create a vertical garden

arbour seat with vertical planting

Tunnels, arbours, pergolas and arches are classic ways to accent the vertical plane

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

The vertical plane is the longest axis in the garden, and there are other ways to use this often forgotten space. For millennia we have used climbing plants to green a surface or espaliered fruit against a warm wall. 

Arbours, arches, tunnels, trellises and pergolas can become lovely focal points adorned in profusely flowering roses entwined with clematis. 

wall containers

At its simplest, a vertical garden is just a container or containers full of soil with drainage holes and a spot on the wall in the sun, the more characterful the better

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

Another easy way to include vertical interest is to add some hanging baskets or containers on windowsills, balconies, along walls or displayed  on stately plinths or a theatre stand.  

pots hanging from a frame on a blue wall

When you start taking notice of the vertical element all kinds of ideas come to mind to draw the eye up with eclectic arrangements

(Image credit: Future/Leigh Clapp)

Your walls and fences can become an attraction in themselves through paint techniques, planting schemes, creative materials or adornments. Screens and hedges also offer further opportunities for your creativity, from a recycled old bed frame – perhaps to support plants and screen an area – to a tapestry of a mixed shrub hedging. 


Obelisks draw the eye up and are a great frame for plants to climb

(Image credit: Future/Leigh Clapp)

Tripod structures have long been a valuable tool in the garden to add vertical punctuation points and support plants. A splash of paint will transform them into something special. 

Once you really look at the vertical axis you may be surprised at just how much you can achieve to complete your garden’s vision. So look up, and grow up!  

Flowers growing up a trellis outside a thatched cottage

Adding a trellis is another way to encourage climbing plants to cover the wall

(Image credit: Future/Leigh Clapp)

Choosing the best plants for living walls and vertical gardens

As elsewhere, select plant varieties to suit conditions, whether annuals and perennials or edible choices, for shade or sun. 

Right plant, right place is important; remember that the plants above will overshadow plants below, and will need careful watering, feeding and pruning. Living walls are planted more densely than a garden bed; think of them as containers in the sky, a tapestry of colour and form.  

Find out more about choosing plants for your garden with our guide.

Shade seeking plants for living walls

plant palette vertical

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

(Above, left to right)

Pachysandra are evergreen perennials or subshrubs with leathery leaves that grow in all but dry soils in part or full shade. Hardy and drought-resistant once established and pest and disease free. Tiny white flowers in mid to late spring.

Heuchera offer a range of foliage colours and spires of tiny flowers. Clump-forming perennials that tolerate some sun but prefer part shade, in moist but well-drained soil. Tidy up dead leaves and if vine weevil is a problem switch to heucherellas.

Vinca minor or periwinkles are tough, fast-growing evergreen perennials for shade or part shade. Violet blue flowers from early spring to mid autumn. Grow in all but the driest soils.

Sun loving plants for living walls

plant palette vertical gardening 2

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

 (Above, left to right)

Erigeron are invaluable for their profusion of tiny daisy flowers from May to November. Happy in sun or part shade, easy care, grows in walls and cracks in paving. Bees and butterflies love this plant.

Pelargoniums are tender bedding plants, ideal for containers in a full sun to part shade spot. Usually grown as annuals to add bright colour to the greenery in summer. Water moderately. Some varieties are scented for added interest. 

Gaillardia are short-lived perennials that add bursts of fiery flowers through summer to autumn. Buy as a plug plant. They need well-drained soil in full sun, are very soil tolerant. Butterflies love them.

The best edible plants for living walls

plant palette 3 vertical gardening

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

(Above, left to right)

Thyme is an evergreen subshrub herb of many different varieties, all have tiny aromatic leaves and flower in summer. Easy care and disease free. Grow in full sun in well-drained soil.

Marjoram grows best in full sun in well-drained soil and is tolerant of most conditions. Harvest the leaves before flowers appear or they taste bitter.

Strawberries have to be everyone’s favourite fruit to grow and they work well in towers, hanging bags and vertical gardens. They need a sunny, sheltered spot, fertile, very well-drained soil and organic matter added.

Climbers for creating living walls

plant palette 4 vertical gardening

(Image credit: Leigh Clapp)

 (Above, left tor right)

Hops are not just for beer; they are a great hardy climbing plant for gardens and will grow anywhere. Not a vine but a bine because they twine clockwise around a support rather than sending out tendrils. Plant rhizomes in humus-rich soil.

Laburnum creates a spectacular sight when the golden racemes hang down in late May/early June. They need a well-drained site with light soil and the classic combination is to grow purple alliums underneath. A note of caution – don’t plant where children play, as all parts are toxic.

Honeysuckle climbers prefer moist, well-drained humus-rich soil in a sunny spot. The more sun, the more flowers, which are also attractive to beneficial insects and are deer resistant. Keep well watered and mulch to preserve moisture.

Tips for creating living walls and vertical gardens

  • Growing vertically offers many possibilities to grow both ornamental and edible plants.
  • Living wall systems include anything from simple grow-bags and panels available from garden centres to ones installed by specialist companies.
  • You can build a living wall on any solid wall or fence.
  • Useful to camouflage ugly walls or structures, insulate the house and increase biodiversity.
  • Make sure you can access all areas of the living wall for watering and maintenance
  • Living walls can get damp so you need to protect the wall
  • A smaller panel can be moved from place to place and changed seasonally
  • Be creative with recycled objects for structures
  • Use small plants when planting your green walls as they are cheaper, easier to plant and will establish quickly
  • Correct planting and regular maintenance is important
  • Replant when plants outgrow their space

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