A beginner's guide to planning permission and permitted development

Chartered surveyor Peter Richards explains how the planning process works – read on if you’re considering extending or converting your home

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Planning permission, also known as planning consent, is the formal permission from a local authority for the erection or alteration of a building. It also required for a change of use of buildings or land.

Certain types of project don’t require express planning permission as they qualify under something called permitted development rights (PD). In recent years, the government has extended what is permissible under PD in a bid to speed up the planning process.

As a general rule, PD rights cover minor extensions, demolition and certain changes of use, such as a loft, garage or cellar conversions. If you are unsure whether your project requires planning permission try our free planning permission tool to find out if you do.

However, is always worth checking with your local council to find out what is likely to be accepted, and double checking the government planning portal to see restrictions. In a bid to speed up the planning process, the maximum size allowed for a single-storey extension has been doubled until 2019.

It means you can add an eight-metre extension to a detached house (previously four metres) or a six-metre extension to a detached property (previously), without planning permission. While most houses have PD rights, flats and maisonettes do not, so planning permission is required. PD rights are also reduced in Conservation Areas, National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, but not in the Green Belt.

Planning permission and permitted development infographic

If you want to be completely certain your project is lawful, you can apply to your local authority for a Certificate of Lawful Development. This proves that the development is legal, and can be important when you come to sell.

An application needs to be submitted to your local authority. The forms are typically the same across all local authorities and can be accessed, completed and uploaded via www.planningportal.co.uk. You will need to submit scaled plans of your proposal and a location plan based on an up-to-date ordnance survey map. Scroll to the end of this page to see a flow chart of the process.

Application fees vary depending on the nature of the application. For example, a full application for a new build is £385, whereas an application for a residential extension is typically £195. Welsh authorities have a different fee schedule, and applications for listed buildings or those Conservation Areas don’t incur a fee.

Local authorities will usually advise of a target determination date when validating your application. For small-scale projects, they normally aim for eight weeks from validation to decision.

You have the ability to appeal the decision to the Planning Inspectorate. Your planning refusal notice will outline whether or not you can appeal and specify a time period in which an appeal must be submitted. An independent planning inspector, who will take into account national and local policy, as well as the impact of the proposal, will then consider the appeal.

Section 106 agreements are legal agreements that run alongside some planning applications. They allow local authorities to secure monetary contributions to offset the impact of the proposal or control restrictions on the planning consent being sought. Normally, Section 106 agreements are reserved for larger applications, however, some local authorities are now using them to secure affordable housing contributions for developments of single plots, so it’s worth checking the local policy.

It would be advisable to contact the council to ascertain whether the tree has a preservation order on it. If you are in a Conservation Area, you will also need to get special consent.

Permitted development

Planning permission

Interior remodellingAltering a listed building
Single storey side and rear extensionsAltering the street-facing elevation
Loft conversionsDividing a property into two
Outbuidlings with max eaves height 2.5mExtending a home that has used its permitted development allocation
Decking under 30cm high off the groundRemodelling or extended on designated land, such as Conservation Areas or Areas of Outstanding National Beauty
PorchesExtending near boundaries
Garage conversions

Building a new house


The planning process

planning permission flowchart